We are provided with a left side of words or phrases that have some
negative connotation, and a right side of clues. The right side
clues can be solved. The bottom clues are all words of length 4, and
some of the top clues resolve nicely to two-letter answers, which
helps clue that they are all supposed to be length 2 as well. In
order, they are:
AD, ET, CH, IT, CS, TY
AGON, SING, ETAM, COME, IONS, CENT
The left words are all associated with prefixes. For instance, if you misspell something, you erroneously spell it, so "MIS-" is a prefix meaning "erroneously". Similarly, the others are:
ANTI-, DE-, IN-, MIS-, NON-, UN-
There are some ambiguities, but they are resolved by the alphabetical ordering here and with the next step of the puzzle.
From here, the key aha is that we can put these left hand prefixes together with the right hand words to make new words. These words, however, do not have the meaning implied by putting the negative prefix in front of the other word. For instance, to "erroneously vocalize music" could be to MIS-SING, and MISSING is a word (although it doesn't have that meaning).
We can do this for all of the right-hand words. Each prefix corresponds to two words. Afterwards, we connect the left hand and right hand dots for the formed words:
Reading the letters that are passed over from top to bottom, we get AGAINST QUATE. (Reading the ones that aren't passed over, we get THESE AREN'T RELEVANT.) We repeat the mechanic from the puzzle to get the final answer, ANTIQUATE.